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Writing a Cover Letter

When applying for a professional position, your resume should always be accompanied by a cover letter. Resumes and cover letters are flexible documents and should be adapted to highlight your particular skills or experiences depending on what job you are applying to. The order in which you present this information can and should vary as well.

When writing a cover letter, remember to:

  1. Use resume paper with a matching envelope
  2. Always type the cover letter
  3. Use spell-check and reread several times to avoid grammatical errors
  4. Be sure to include examples that are relatable to the position
  5. Do NOT use negative language

Follow these general guidelines when writing a cover letter:

PARAGRAPH 1:

  • State which position you are applying for, and how you found out about it.
  • Express what is attracting you to work for this organization and in this position.

** Arouse the reader’s interest in reading more about your qualifications

Top 10 Cover Letter Writing Tips

Advice for Writing a Top Notch Cover Letter for a Job

Alison Doyle is one of the nation’s foremost career experts and has counseled both students and corporations on hiring practices. She has given hundreds of interviews on the topic for outlets including The New York Times, BBC News, and LinkedIn. Alison founded CareerToolBelt.com and has been an expert in the field for more than 20 years.

Maddy Price / The Balance

Are you working on a cover letter to send with your resume? It’s important that your cover letter makes the best impression, because it’s what can help you secure a job interview.

When you need to write a cover letter to apply for a job, it’s sometimes the small things that can make a big difference. The closer to perfect your letter is, the better your chances are of impressing the hiring manager.

Follow these tips and techniques for sending a top-notch cover letter, and you will increase your chances of getting an interview.

Select the Right Type of Cover Letter

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There are several types of cover letters that can be sent to employers and contacts. For example, there are traditional cover letters (also known as application letters), which are written to apply for specific job openings. If you know some who can refer you for a job, you’ll want to write a referral cover letter.

There are also letters of interest (also known as prospecting letters), in which you ask about possible job openings at a company. Cold contact cover letters are written to companies that haven’t advertised job openings.

Be sure to choose a type of cover letter that reflects what you are applying for, why you are writing, and what you are requesting.

Go Beyond Your Resume

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Your cover letter should not be just another version of your resume. Instead, this letter should provide specific evidence of what you will bring to the company.

For your letter, pick two to three skills or abilities you want to highlight. Then offer examples of times you demonstrated those traits.

For example, if you want to highlight your experience and skill tutoring children, provide an example of how you successfully tutored a student. You can include a particular teaching moment when you were particularly successful.

These examples are what will make your cover letter different from your resume.

Whenever possible, include numbers to show how you have added value to previous companies you worked for. In the example mentioned above, you might provide data on how your previous students’ grades improved while working with you.

If you are a recent graduate or otherwise do not have a lot of work experience, you can highlight some of your transferable skills in your resume. Provide evidence from projects, classes, volunteer work, etc. that demonstrates that you have these skills.

Write a Custom Cover Letter for Every Job

A hiring manager can quickly tell if you have written a generic cover letter that you use for every job. That is a quick way to get your application thrown out. Instead, take the time to customize your cover letter so it reflects your interest in the specific position and company you’re applying to.

Target each letter to fit the specific job. The best way to do this is to match your qualifications to the job:

  • First, look carefully at the job listing.
  • Second, select two or three skills, abilities, or experiences that the job requires that you know you have.
  • In your letter, provide examples of times that you demonstrated each of those skills.

Include keywords from the job listing in your cover letter as well. For example, if the listing says the ideal candidate has experience with “data-driven decision making,” you might include an example of a time you used data to make a decision or solve a problem.

Take the time to showcase your personality and explain how you’d be a terrific fit for the position and the company.

It can be ​time-consuming to write a custom cover letter for each job you apply for, but it’s important to take the time and effort. A custom letter will help the reader to see, at a glance, that you are a good match for the job.

Don’t Point Out What You’re Missing

Generally, don’t apologize for anything in your cover letter. There are some things you don’t need to include in a cover letter. If you lack a required skill or degree, don’t mention it. That will only highlight what you don’t have. Instead, focus on highlighting the skills and experiences you do have, and explain how they make you a great fit for the job.

However, when you have recent gaps in your work history (within the past year or so), whether from being laid-off and out of work, taking time out from the workplace to spend with your family, traveling, going back to school, or for any reason, your cover letter gives you an opportunity to explain an employment gap.

If you decide to mention this employment gap in your cover letter, do so very briefly, then quickly return to highlighting your skills and abilities.

Try to Find a Contact Person

It’s not always easy to find a contact person to address your cover letter to, but it’s worth spending some time trying. When it comes to cover letters, taking the time to get personal is really important. Find out as much as you can about the company and the hiring manager.

Be sure to address your cover letter to the specific hiring manager who will be reading your letter. If you don’t know who that person is, check out the company website, or even call the company and ask.

If you can’t figure out who will be reading the letter, address your letter with the greeting, “Dear Hiring Manager.”

If you have any contacts at the company who referred you to the job or are willing to put in a good word for you, mention their names in the first paragraph of your letter. This is a great way to gain an employer’s interest. However, make sure you have checked with your contacts in advance and asked if they are willing to give you a referral.

Format Your Cover Letter Properly

It’s essential for your first impression to be a good one, because that’s a step towards getting an interview. You will want your cover letter to not only to include the proper information, but also to look polished and professional. Therefore, be sure to format your cover letter properly. If you are sending a physical letter, use business letter format. Include your contact information, the date, and the contact information of the employer at the top of the letter.

If you are sending your cover letter as an email, your format will be a bit different. You will also need to include a subject line that mentions your name and the job title.

If your cover letter is a bit too long, you can adjust the margins to give yourself more space.

However, you want to have plenty of white space in your cover letter, so don’t make the margins too small.

Also include a space between your greeting, between each paragraph, and after your closing. This will add white space as well. No matter how you send your cover letter, be sure to pick a simple, readable font.

Be Yourself and Show Your Personality

You want your cover letter to be professional, but you also should be clear about what you have to offer the employer—and that’s you and your credentials. Professional doesn’t mean that you have to use awkwardly formal language. Avoid phrases that don’t feel natural, like “Dear Sir or Madam,” or “I wish to convey my sincere interest in a position at your exquisite institution.” Instead, use clear, straightforward language.

Also avoid clichéd, overused phrases that hiring managers are sick of reading (“go-getter,” “team player,” etc.). Replace those phrases with power words like “initiated” and “collaborated.”

You want to come across as polite and professional, but not fake. Don’t use language that feels uncomfortable or corny. Read more about how to show your personality in a cover letter.

Use Cover Letter Examples and Templates

Take the time to review cover letter examples before you start writing your own letter to apply for a job. Examples can give you an idea of how to structure your letter, and what information to include.

Also check out some cover letter templates, which can help you format your letter. A template also gives you the framework you can personalize for your own letters.

While it is useful to look at templates and examples, be sure to change any letter sample to fit your own skills and abilities, and the position you are applying for.

Proofread and Edit Your Letter

Because hiring managers look at hundreds of applicants, a small typo can make or break your chances of getting an interview. Therefore, be sure to thoroughly proofread your cover letter (and all of your application materials, for that matter).

Read through your letter, looking for any spelling or grammar errors. Make sure you have the correct company name, hiring manager’s name, date, etc. in your heading.

Reading your letter out loud is a useful way to check for mistakes.

Consider asking a friend or family member to read your letter as well. Ask them to check for errors, but you can also ask for more general feedback. Ask whether or not your friend is convinced that you are a great fit for the job after reading your letter.

Follow the Instructions in the Job Posting

The most important part of sending a cover letter is to follow the employer’s instructions. If the job posting says to include your cover letter and resume as an email attachment, attach Microsoft Word or PDF files to your email message. If the hiring manager says they want you to submit your materials using an online application system, don’t email or mail a physical application.

If you need to email your cover letter, be sure to include your name and the job title of the position in your message.

It’s important to send your cover letter and resume attachments correctly, to include all the information requested so your message is read, and to let the receiver know how they can contact you to schedule an interview.

How to Write a Cover Letter in 2022 | Beginner’s Guide

After weeks of heavy job search, you’re almost there!

You’ve perfected your resume.

You’ve short-listed the coolest jobs you want to apply for.

You’ve even had a friend train you for every single interview question out there.

But then, before you can send your application and call it a day, you remember that the job ad requires a cover letter.

Now you’re stuck wondering how to write a cover letter.

Don’t panic! We’ve got you covered. Writing a cover letter is a lot simpler than you might think.

In this guide, we’re going to teach you how to write a cover letter that gets you the job you deserve.

  1. What’s a cover letter & why it’s important for your job search
  2. How to write a convincing cover letter that gets you the job (step-by-step!)
  3. How to perfect your cover letter with the Novoresume free checklist
  4. What excellent cover letter examples look like

So, let’s get started with the basics!

What is a Cover Letter? (and Why It’s Important)

A cover letter is a one-page document that you submit as part of your job application (alongside your CV or Resume).

Its purpose is to introduce you and briefly summarize your professional background. On average, your cover letter should be from 250 to 400 words long.

A good cover letter can spark the HR manager’s interest and get them to read your resume.

A bad cover letter, on the other hand, might mean that your application is going directly to the paper shredder. So, to make sure this doesn’t happen, it’s essential to know how to write a convincing cover letter.

How does a good cover letter look, you might ask. Well, here’s an example:

Keep in mind, though, that a cover letter is a supplement to your resume, not a replacement. Meaning, you don’t just repeat whatever is mentioned in your resume.

If you’re writing a cover letter for the first time, writing all this might seem pretty tough. After all, you’re probably not a professional writer.

The thing is, though, you don’t need to be creative, or even any good at writing. All you have to do is follow a tried-and-tested format:

  • Header – Input contact information
  • Greeting the hiring manager
  • Opening paragraph – Grab the reader’s attention with 2-3 of your top achievements
  • Second paragraph – Explain why you’re the perfect candidate for the job
  • Third paragraph – Explain why you’re a good match for the company
  • Formal closing

Or, here’s what this looks like in practice:

How to Write the Perfect Cover Letter (And Get Hired!)

Now that we’ve got the basics out of the way, we’re going to guide you through the process of writing a cover letter step by step.

Step #1 – Pick the Right Cover Letter Template

A good cover letter is all about leaving the right first impression.

So, what’s a better way to leave a good impression than a well-formatted, visual template?

You can simply pick one of our hand-picked cover letter templates, and you’ll be all set in a jiffy!

As a bonus, our AI will even give you suggestions on how to improve your cover letter on the go.

Step #2 – Start the Cover Letter with a Header

As with a resume, it’s important to start your cover letter with a Contact Information section:

Here, you want to include all essential information, including:

  • Full Name
  • Phone Number
  • Email
  • Date
  • Name of the hiring manager / their professional title
  • Name of the company you’re applying to

In certain cases, you might also consider adding:

  • Social Media Profiles – Any type of profile that’s relevant to your field. Social Profiles on websites like LinkedIn, GitHub (for developers), Medium (for writers), etc.
  • Personal Website – If you have a personal website that somehow adds value to your application, you can mention it. Let’s say you’re a professional writer. In that case, you’d want to link to your blog.

And here’s what you shouldn’t mention in your header:

  • Your Full Address
  • Unprofessional Email – Make sure your email is presentable. It’s pretty hard for a hiring manager to take you seriously if your email address is “[email protected]” Whenever applying for jobs, stick to the “[first name] + [last name] @ email provider.com” format.

Step #3 – Greet the Hiring Manager

Once you’ve properly listed your contact information, you need to start writing the cover letter contents.

The first thing to do here is to address the cover letter to the hiring manager.

That’s right, the hiring manager! Not the overly popular “Dear Sir or Madam.” You want to show your future boss that you did your research and are really passionate about working with their team.

No one wants to hire a job seeker who just spams 20+ companies and hopes to get hired in any of them.

So, how do you find out who’s the hiring manager? There are several ways to do this.

The simplest option is to look up the head of the relevant department on LinkedIn. Let’s say you’re applying for the position of a Communication Specialist at Novoresume. The hiring manager is probably Head of Communications or Chief Communications Office.

So, you do a quick lookup on LinkedIn:

And voila! You have your hiring manager.

Or let’s say you’re applying for the position of a server. In that case, you’d be looking for the “restaurant manager.”

If this doesn’t work, you can also check out the “Team” page on the company website; there’s a good chance you’ll at least find the right person there.

Here are several other greetings you could use:

  • Dear [Department] Hiring Manager
  • Dear Hiring Manager
  • To whom it may concern
  • Dear [Department] Team

Step #4 – Write an Attention-Grabbing Introduction

First impressions matter, especially when it comes to your job search.

Recruiters get hundreds, sometimes even thousands, of applications. Chances are, they’re not going to be reading every single cover letter end-to-end.

So, it’s essential to catch their attention from the very first paragraph.

The #1 problem we see with most cover letter opening paragraphs is that they’re usually extremely generic. Most of them look something like this..

  • Hey, my name is Jonathan and I’d like to work as a Sales Manager at XYZ Inc. I’ve worked as a sales manager at MadeUpCompany Inc. for 5+ years, so I believe that I’d be a good fit for the position.

See the issue here? This opening paragraph doesn’t say pretty much anything except the fact that you’ve worked the job before.

Do you know who else has similar work experience? All the other applicants you’re competing with.

Instead, you want to start off with 2-3 of your top achievements to really grab the reader’s attention. Preferably, the achievements should be as relevant as possible to the position.

So now, let’s make our previous example shine:

My name’s Michael and I’d like to help XYZ Inc. hit and exceed their sales goals as a Sales Manager. I’ve worked with Company X, a fin-tech company, for 3+ years. As a Sales Representative, I generated an average of $30,000+ in sales per month (beating the KPIs by around 40%). I believe that my previous industry experience, as well as excellence in sales, makes me the right candidate for the job.

See the difference between the two examples? If you were the hiring manager, which sales manager would you hire, Jonathan or Michael?

Now that we’ve covered the introduction, let’s talk about the body of your cover letter. This part is split into two paragraphs: the first is for explaining why you’re the perfect person for the job, and the latter is for proving that you’re a good fit for the company.

So, let’s get started.

Step #5 – Explain why you’re the perfect person for the job

This is where you show off your professional skills and convince the HR manager that you’re a better fit for the job than all the other applicants.

But first things first – before you even write anything, you need to learn what the most important requirements for the role are. So, open up the job ad and identify which of the responsibilities are the most critical.

For the sake of the example, let’s say you’re applying for the position of a Facebook Advertiser. You scan the job ad and see that the top requirements are:

  1. Experience managing a Facebook ad budget of $10,000+ / month
  2. Some skills in advertising on other platforms (Google Search + Twitter)
  3. Excellent copywriting skills

Now, in this section, you need to discuss how you fulfill these requirements. So, here’s how that would look for our example:

In my previous role as a Facebook Marketing Expert at XYZ Inc. I handled customer acquisition through ads, managing a monthly Facebook ad budget of $20,000+. As the sole digital marketer at the company, I managed the ad creation & management process end-to-end. Meaning, I created the ad copy , images, picked the targeting, ran optimization trials, and so on.

Other than Facebook advertising, I’ve also delved into other online PPC channels, including:

Are you a student applying for your first internship? You probably don’t have a lot of work experience to show off in this section. Learn how to write an internship cover letter here.

Step #6 – Explain why you’re a good fit for the company

Once you’ve written the last paragraph, you might be thinking – I’m a shoo-in for the job! What else do I need to write? I’ll just wrap up the cover letter and hit that sweet SEND button.

Well, no. You’re not quite there yet.

The HR manager doesn’t only look at whether you’ll be good at the job or not. They’re looking for someone that’s also a good fit for the company culture.

After all, employees that don’t fit in are bound to quit, sooner or later. This ends up costing the company a ton of money, up to 50% of the employee’s annual salary.

Meaning, you also need to convince the HR manager that you’re really passionate about working with them.

How do you do this? Well, as a start, you want to do some research about the company. You want to know things like:

  • What’s the company’s business model?
  • What’s the company product or service? Have you used it?
  • What’s the culture like? Will someone micro-manage your work, or will you have autonomy on how you get things done?

So, get to Googling. Chances are, you’ll find all the information you need either on the company website or somewhere around the web.

Then, you need to figure out what you like about the company and turn that into text.

Let’s say, for example, you’re passionate about their product and you like the culture of innovation / independent work in the organization.

You’d write something like:

I’ve personally used the XYZ Smartphone, and I believe that it’s the most innovative tech I’ve used in years. The features such as Made-Up-Feature #1 and Made-Up-Feature #2 were real game changers for the device.

I really admire how Company XYZ thrives for excellence for all its product lines, creating market-leading tech. As someone that thrives in a self-driven environment, I truly believe that I and Company XYZ will be a great match.

What you don’t want to do here is be super generic for the sake of having something to write. Most job seekers tend to mess this one up. Let’s take a look at a very common example we tend to see (way too often):

I’d love to work for Company XYZ because of its culture of innovation. I believe that since I’m super creative, I’d be a good fit for the company. The company values of integrity and transparency really vibe with me.

See what’s wrong here? The example doesn’t really say anything about the company. “Culture of Innovation” is something most companies claim to have.

The same goes for “values of integrity and transparency” – the writer just googled what the values for the organization are, and said that they like them.

Any hiring manager that reads this will see through the fluff.

So, make sure to do a lot of research and come up with good reasons why you’re applying.

Step #7 – Wrap up with a call to action

Finally, it’s time to finish up your cover letter and write the conclusion.

In the final paragraph, you want to:

  • Wrap up any points you couldn’t in the previous paragraphs. Do you have anything left to say? Any other information that could help the hiring manager make their decision? Mention it here.
  • Thank the hiring manager for their time. It never hurts to be courteous, as long as you don’t come off as too needy.
  • Finish the cover letter with a call to action. The very last sentence in your cover letter should be a call to action. You should ask the hiring manager to take some sort of action.

And now, let’s turn this into a practical example:

So to wrap it all up, thanks for looking into my application. I hope I can help Company X make the most out of their Facebook marketing initiatives. I’d love to further discuss how my previous success at XYZ Inc. can help you achieve your facebook marketing goals.

Step #8 – Use the right formal closing

Once you’re done with the final paragraph, all you have to do is write down a formal “goodbye” and you’re good to go.

Feel free to use one of the most popular conclusions to a cover letter:

  • Best Regards,
  • Kind Regards,
  • Sincerely,
  • Thank you,

And we’re finally done! Before sending off the cover letter, make sure to proofread it with software like Grammarly, or maybe even get a friend to review it for you.

Does your cover letter heading include all essential information?

  • Full Name
  • Professional email
  • Phone Number
  • Date
  • Relevant Social Media Profiles

Do you address the right person? I.e. hiring manager in the company / your future direct supervisor

Does your introductory paragraph grab the reader’s attention?

  • Did you mention 2-3 of your top achievements?
  • Did you use numbers and facts to back up your experience?

Do you successfully convey that you’re the right pro for the job?

  • Did you identify the core requirements?
  • Did you successfully convey how your experiences help you fit the requirements perfectly?

Do you convince the hiring manager that you’re passionate about the company you’re applying to?

  • Did you identify the top 3 things that you like about the company?
  • Did you avoid generic reasons for explaining your interest in the company?

Did you finalize the conclusion with a call to action?

Did you use the right formal closure for the cover letter?

5+ Cover Letter Examples

Need some inspiration? Read on to learn about some of the best cover letter examples we’ve seen (for different fields).

College Student Cover Letter Example

Middle Management Cover Letter Example

Career Change Cover Letter Example

Management Cover Letter Example

Senior Executive Cover Letter Example

Want to discover more examples AND learn what makes them stand out? Check out our guide to cover letter examples.

Next Steps in Your Job Search – Creating a Killer Resume

Your cover letter is only as good as your resume. If either one is weak, your entire application is for naught.

After all, a cover letter is just an introduction. Imagine going through all this effort to leave an amazing first impression, but flopping at the end because of a mediocre resume.

. But don’t you worry, we’ve got you covered on that end, too.

If you want to learn more about Resumes & CVs, we have a dedicated FREE guide for that. Check out our complete guide on how to make a resume, as well as how to write a CV – our experts will teach you everything you need to know in order to land your dream job.

Or, if you’re already an expert, just pick one of our resume templates and get started.

Key Takeaways

Now that we’ve walked you through all the steps of writing a cover letter, let’s summarize everything we’ve learned:

  • A cover letter is a 250 – 400 word document that convinces the hiring manager of your competence
  • A cover letter goes in your job application alongside your resume
  • Your introduction to the cover letter should grab the hiring manager’s attention and keep it all the way until the conclusion
  • There are 2 main topics you need to include in your cover letter: why you’re the perfect candidate for the job & why you’re passionate about working in the company you’re applying to
  • Most of the content of your cover letter should be factual, without any fluff or generalizations

At Novorésumé, we’re committed to helping you get the job you deserve, every step of the way! Follow our blog to stay up to date with the industry-leading advice. Or, check out some of our top guides…